Crystal Mineral.
Physical: Crystal glass. Shiny. Smooth surface.
The minerals are usually used for electronics.
Most are in Chine, Africa, Peru.

The illegal mining were destroying nature and wildlife.
People demanded for the removal of the people as they have lost their houses,
animals due to blasting and healthy environment as well.

5 Articles:
-Industries included many minerals.
- Illegal mining was discovered at this part of India.
-India is the largest importer of the yellow metal in the world after China. Are also creating new laws for mining.

What’s the difference?

Brainstorm with your team and record your responses to the following questions:

What is the difference between a mineral and

a human, a dog, a fish, a banana plant, lichen, an eagle and a mosquito?
They are all living. Mineral is not a living thing.

a plastic bottle, a glass vase, a tin can, an airplane and a sofa?
They all can contain something.

steam, gatorade, milk and yoghurt?
Liquid substances.

What is the similarity between water and a mineral?
They are natural. Repeating of crystal structure.

Whole group brainstorm: What 5 characteristics do all minerals share?

1) solid
2) have repeating crystalline structure
3) have defined homogenous chemical composition
4) naturally occuring
5) inorganic

Answer the following questions:
Is a diamond a mineral? Why or why not?
Yes. Crystalline structure. Made of carbon.

Is a pearl a mineral? Why or why not?
No. Doesn’t have a repeating crystalline structure.

Is coal a mineral? Why or why not?
No. It’s compressed organic matter.

Is salt a mineral? Why or why not?

Is ice a mineral? Why or why not?

- India depends on over 3100 mines, out of which over 550 are fuel mines, over 560 are mines for metals, and over 1970 are mines for extraction of nonmetals.

-600 coal mines, 35 oil projects and 6000 metalliferous mines of different sizes employing over one million persons on a daily average basis.
- India also exports iron ore, titanium, manganese, bauxite, granite, and imports cobalt, mercury, graphite-
Among the metals used were gold, silver, copper, mercury, iron, iron ores, pyrite, tin, and brass-

iron ore








Part B:
Procedure:1. Place the dropper bottles conaining the thymol and urea in the beaker with about an inch of water. (Be sure the dropper bottles do NOT have plastic droppers, glass only.)2. Place the beaker on the hot plate and heat gently until all of the thymol is melted. Do NOT allow it to boil.3. Remove the beaker from the hot plate with the beaker tongs. Turn the hot plate off. Leave the dropper bottles in the hot water in the beaker.4. Place a clean, dry microscope slide on the viewing stage of a stereo-microscope. 5. Put one drop of melted thymol on the slide.6. Observe as the thymol cools and crystallizes. If it doesn’t begin to crystallize after 15 seconds, add one small thymol crystal to seed the melt. Watch carefully until all of the melt has crystallized. (Each student needs to repeat this process.)7. Sketch a representative view of the crystallized thymol in the circle below.8. Throw the slide away in the garbage and be sure to wash your hands.
thymol crystals
9. Get a new slide. Place one drop of the urea solution on the slide. Place the slide on the stereo-microscope.10. Observe as the urea crystallizes. Sketch a representative view of the urea crystals in the circle below.11. Throw the slide away in the garbage. Be sure to wash your hands.urea crystalsAnswer the following questions:1. Where in the droplet of thymol did the crystals begin to form?In the middle.

2. Were the first crystals that formed regular sizes and shapes? Regular shape.

3. How did the sizes and shapes of the last crystals that formed compare to those formed earlier?
They were pushing towards each. It wasn't as regular shape as the one before, it was more irregular.

4. How did the arrangement of the thymol crystals on the microscope slide compare to the thin section of granite you observed? (Compare your drawings for the crystal size, shape and arrangement.)It seemed to absorb everything in there.

5. Which method of crystallization is most like the formation of the urea crystals? (Remember the urea is dissolved in water and the thymol is simply melted.)It just dissolved and absorbed everything. There were no regular crystals formed.

6. How did the arrangement of the urea crystals on the microscope slide compare to the thin section of the granite you observed? (Compare your drawings for crystal size, shape and arrangement.)
They were more together. When the liquid was placed on the slide right away the crystals were attracting each other.

Part C:Procedure:1. Cut a piece of copper wire about 1 cm in length. Place it on a microscope slide under the stereo-microscope.2. Take special precautions when working with silver nitrate. Do not get it on your skin. If you do, flush immediately with a large quantity of water. Put 1 drop of AgNO3 directly on the copper wire. Immediately watch as the crystals begin to grow.3. Sketch a representative view of the copper wire and crystals in the circle below.4. Dispose of the entire slide in the garbage can. Be sure to wash your hands.
silver nitrate and copper wire
Answer the following questions:1. The pattern you should have observed is called a dendritic pattern. What type of crystals do you think made it? Consider the composition of the copper wire and the silver nitrate.Regular crustals. It tore apart the wire, there were little pieces coming apart.

2. Is the pattern of the crystals regular and repeating?It was irregular.

3. Are there planes or surfaces suggesting an orderly arrangement of atoms?No

4. Look up the word “crystal” in your textbook. If this activity were to occur in nature, could the silver dendrites be called crystals? Support your answer.No they can't.

5. How does the crystallization rate of the silver nitrates compare to that of the thymol?
It doesn't crystalize as fast and much as the thymol.



The minerals industry of India produced more than 80 mineral uses in the form of ores, metals, industrial minerals, and mineral fuels and was among the world's leading producers of iron ore, bituminous coal, zinc, and bauxite. There was an increase in production and those were noted for bauxite, cathode copper, crude oil, iron ore, steel, and other minerals. Also, a large amount of Gold and silver came the Kolar fields of southeastern Karnataka. There the gold mines have reached a depth of more than 3.2 km and held 55,000 kg of gold. Zinc was controlled by the government at one point. India was one of the largest exports of chromite for Chine at one point.

Notes 83-87


Notes 87-95

-Minerals are determined by figuring out if it is a mineral, and what's it made up of.
-Minerals are classified in categories in much the same as plants, animals etc.
-Mineral species are usually assigned to a mineral class based on their anions.
-The mineral classes that are less abundant than the silicated they odten are grouped together under a group called nonsilicates.
-All silicate minerals have the same building block known as the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron.
-The light silicates are generally light in color and have specific gravity of about 27, which is less than the dark.
-Muscovite is a commom member of the mica familt. It is light in color and has a pearly luster to it.
-Clay minerals are known to have sheet structures. And are very fine grained.



Notes: 95-97 & 647-650

-Nonsilicate minerals are tupically subdivided into classes, based on the anion or comples anion
that the members have in common.
-Two or more nonsilicate minerals requently found in sedimentary rock are halite and gypsum.
-Both minerals are commonly found in thick payers that are last vestiges of ancient seas that have long since evaporated.
-A mineral is any naturally occuring inorganic solid that pissesses an orderly crystalline structure and well defined chemical composition.
-The building blocks of minerals are known as elements.
-Atoms combined wityh each other to form more complex substances are called compounds.

-Bauxite forms in rainy tropiocal climates in association with laterites.
-Many copper and silver deposits result when weathering processes concentrate
metals that are deposited through a low grade primary ore.
-Earth's minerals that are not used as rules or processed for the metals they contain are referred to as nonmetallic mineral resource.
Nonsilicate Minerals.
Inorganic Minerals.

-Mining has been a very important element in the history of Goa. Goa is a major iron ore exporting
state and over 60% of Country's iron ore export is from Goa. Mining in Goa is done by open cast
method which necessitates the removal of overburden overlying the iron ore formations.
in the process removal of which about 40 to 50 million of mining waste is generated,
thereby causing severe environmental pollution.

-Goa India
-Minerals found are: Manganese, Iron ore, high magnesia, limestone, clay
-Are known to be the chief minerals of economic importance found in Goa
-One of the largest esports
-Mining is very strict
-No one is allowed to complain for the noise
-If complained then they destroy the rest of their houses.
-Houses already are destroyed because of the explosives used for the mines
-Workers are underpaid
-The main problem is that the villages are begin destroyed because of the mining.